Acknowledgements & Credits

We are grateful to the following individuals, each of whom reviewed one or more chapters of The Teacher-Friendly Guide™ to the Earth Science of the Southwestern US: Jim Davis, Don Duggan-Haas, Rod Feldmann, Karl Flessa, Bryan Isacks, Vince Matthews, Thomas McGuire, Cori Myers, David Lindsey, Judith Parrish, Donald Rasmussen, David Tabet, and Alex Wall. For assistance with the text and figures in Chapter 3 (Fossils), we are grateful to: Loren Babcock, Wade Greenberg-Brand, Kirk Johnson, Alana McGillis, Corinne Myers, Rene O'Connell, Susannah Porter, Samantha Richards, Chris Schur, Leslie Skibinski, Christi Sobel, and Peter Stifel.

Richard Kissel managed early content development of the Guide, and was aided in content research by Sara Auer Perry. The glossary was developed by Paula Mikkelsen and Andrielle Swaby.

Funding for this Guide came from National Science Foundation DR K-12 grant DRL-0733303 to the Paleontological Research Institution. Funding to start The Teacher-Friendly Guide™ series was provided by the Arthur Vining Davis Foundations. Jane (Ansley) Picconi did page layout for the first Guide in the series, The Teacher-Friendly Guide™ to the Geology of the Northeastern US (Paleontological Research Institution special publication 24, 2000), many features of which have been adopted for this Guide.

Figure Credits

Chapter 1: Geologic History

  • 1.1: Jim Houghton
  • 1.2: Jane Picconi
  • 1.3: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 1.4: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by USGS
  • 1.5: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by Karlstrom et al. (2012), Vishnu basement rocks of the Upper Granite Gorge: Continent formation 1.84 to 1.66 billion years ago, Geological Society of America Special Papers 489, pp 7–24
  • 1.6: Adapted from image by John Goodge, USGS
  • 1.7: Adapted from image by Ron Blakey, NAU Geology
  • 1.8: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 1.9: Adapted from image by Ron Blakey, NAU Geology
  • 1.10: Jim Houghton
  • 1.11-1.12: Adapted from image by Ron Blakey, NAU Geology
  • 1.13: US Department of Energy
  • 1.14: Adapted from image by Ron Blakey, NAU Geology
  • 1.15: NOAA
  • 1.16: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
  • 1.17: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by William A. Cobban and Kevin C. McKinney, USGS
  • 1.18: "Kbh3rd" [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 1.19: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 1.20: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by Illinois State Geological Survey
  • 1.21: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • Crust Box: Jim Houghton
  • Pangaea Box: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by USGS
  • Plate Boundaries Box: Jose F. Vigil, USGS

Chapter 2: Rocks

  • 2.1: Jane Picconi
  • 2.2: National Park Service
  • 2.3: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 2.4: National Park Service
  • 2.5: James St. John [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.6: National Park Service
  • 2.7: USGS
  • 2.8: Kevin Walsh [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.9: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by Doelling et al. (2000), Geology of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Utah, Utah Geological Association Publication 28
  • 2.10: James St. John [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.11: Keith Yahl [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.12: Dirk Van de Velde [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.13: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by Chan and Archer (2000), Cyclic Eolian Stratification on the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone, Zion National Park: Periodicities and Implications for Paleoclimate, Utah Geological Association Publication 28
  • 2.14: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by William A. Cobban and Kevin C. McKinney, USGS
  • 2.15: James St. John [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.16: Ken Lund [CC-BY-SA-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.17: Luca Galuzzi - www.galuzzi.it [CC-BY-SA-2.5] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 2.18: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by Goff and Janik (2002), Gas geochemistry of the Valles Caldera Region, New Mexico and comparisons with gases at Yellowstone, Long Valley and other geothermal systems, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 116(3–4): 299–323
  • 2.19: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by USGS
  • 2.20: Graeme Churchard [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.21: Bowie Snodgrass [CC-BY-2.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 2.22: Doc Searls [CC-BY-SA-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.23: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by USGS
  • 2.24: Bryant Olsen [CC-BY-NC-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.25: Daniel Mayer [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 2.26: Jim Houghton
  • 2.27: Bureau of Land Management
  • 2.28: Tristan Higbee [CC-BY-SA-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.29: "summitcheese" [CC-BY-SA-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.30–2.31: James St. John [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.32: "Loco Steve" [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.33: Sam Howzit [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.34: James St. John [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.35: Brittany Woiderski [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.36: Carol M. Highsmith
  • 2.37: James St. John [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.38: Bryce Bradford [CC-BY-ND-2.0] via Flickr
  • 2.39: James St. John [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • Surface Rocks Box: Jim Houghton
  • Dune Box: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • Columnar Jointing Box: Wendy Van Norden
  • Metamorphism Box: Jim Houghton
  • Sedimentary Environments Box: Jim Houghton

Chapter 3: Fossils

  • 3.1: Andrielle Swaby
  • 3.2: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 3.3: Carl Bowman, National Park Service [CC-BY-2.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 3.4: Susannah Porter, reproduced with permission.
  • 3.5: Walcott, C. D. (1886), Second Contribution to the Studies on the Cambrian Fauna of North America, Bulletin of the US Geological Survey No. 30, Government Printing Office, Washngton 3.6: A) and B) Chris Schur, reproduced with permission; C) © Christi Sobel
  • 3.7: A) Nicholson, H.A. (1896), The Ancient Life-History of the Earth, Appleton, New York, 407 pp; B) Eastman, C.R. (ed.) (1937), Text-book of Paleontology, Vol. I, MacMillan, London, 839 pp; C) Shimer, H. W., and R. R. Schrock (1944), Index Fossils of North America: A New Work Based on the Complete Revision and Reillustration of Grabau and Shimer’s 'North American Index Fossils,' MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
  • 3.8: Michael Quinn, National Park Service
  • 3.9: © Christi Sobel
  • 3.10: McKee, E.D. (1982), The Supai Group of Grand Canyon, US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1173, 504 p.
  • 3.11: A) Michael Quinn, National Park Service; B) © Christi Sobel
  • 3.12: © Christi Sobel
  • 3.13: A) Photo by Wade Greenberg-Brand, specimen TU1061 in the collection of the Paleontological Research Institution; B), C), D), E), F), and G) McKee, E. D. (1938), The environment and history of the Toroweap Formation and Kaibab formations of northern Arizona and southern Utah, Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. 492, Washington, DC, 268 pp; H) and I) © Christi Sobel
  • 3.14: A) D. M. S. Watson; B) Nobu Tamura [CC-BY-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 3.15: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 3.16: Will Sillin, reproduced with permission
  • 3.17: A) and D) © Christi Sobel; B) Alana McGillis; C) Nobu Tamura [CC-BY-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons; E) David Starr Jordan
  • 3.18: James St. John [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr and Jeff Martz, National Park Service
  • 3.19: A) and B) Frank Kovalchek [CC-BY-2.0] via Wikimedia Commons and Jeff Martz, National Park Service; C) Mark Byzewski [CC-BY-2.0] via Wikimedia Commons and Jeff Martz, National Park Service; D) © Christi Sobel and Jeff Martz, National Park Service
  • 3.20: "Moondigger" [CC-BY-SA-2.5] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 3.21: © Christi Sobel
  • 3.22: © Robert S Oakes & Joseph D Lavenburg/National Geographic Creative
  • 3.23: © Christi Sobel
  • 3.24: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 3.25: © Christi Sobel
  • 3.26: Kyle Greenberg [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 3.27: Alana McGillis, adapted from data by Hunt et al. (2005), Vertebrate trace fossils from Arizona with special reference to tracks preserved in National Park Service units and notes on the Phanerozoic distribution of fossil footprints, in Heckert, A.B., and Lucas, S.G., eds., Vertebrate Paleontology in Arizona, New Mexico Museum Of Natural History And Science Bulletin 29: 158–166; Lockley et al. (1986), North America's largest dinosaur trackway site: implications for Morrison Formation paleoecology, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 97(10): 1163–1176; Lockley et al. (2000), Dinosaur tracksites in New Mexico: A review, in Lucas, S.G., and A.B. Heckert, eds, Dinosaurs of New Mexico, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 17: 9–16; Lockley and Lucas (2013), Evazoum gatewayensis, a new late Triassic archosaurian ichnospecies from Colorado: implications for footprints in the ichnofamily Otozoidae, in The Triassic System, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 61: 345–353; Lockley and Lucas (eds.) (2014), Fossil footprints of Western North America, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 62; Milan et al. (2008), Crouching theropod and Navahopus sauropodomorph tracks from the Early Jurassic Navajo Sandstone of USA, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 53(2): 197–205;
  • 3.28: Alana McGillis, adapted from images by Tidwell, W.D. (1998) Common Fossil Plants of Western North America, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, 299 pp, and Foster, J. (2007), Jurassic West: The Dinosaurs of the Morrison Formation and Their World, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 416 pp
  • 3.29: Mary Beth Ihnken
  • 3.30: Sampson et al. (2010), New horned dinosaurs from Utah provide evidence for intracontinental dinosaur endemism, PLoS ONE, 5(9): e12292, [CC-BY-2.5] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 3.31: © Christi Sobel
  • 3.32: A) Wade Greenberg-Brand; B) Warren Allmon
  • 3.33: Zach Tirrell [CC-BY-SA-2.0] via Wikimedia Commons and © Christi Sobel
  • 3.34: Alana McGillis
  • 3.35: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 3.36: A) and B) © Christi Sobel; C) Stokes, W. L. (1986), Geology of Utah, Utah Museum of Natural History and Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey, 280+ pp.
  • 3.37: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 3.38: A) and C) © Christi Sobel; B) Birmingham Paleontological Society, reproduced with permission
  • 3.39: A), B), C), F), and G) Cobban, W. (1977), Characteristic marine mollusan fossils from the Dakota Sandstone and intertongued Mancos Shale, west-central New Mexico, US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1009, 30 pp, 21 pl.; D) Shimer, H. W., and R. R. Schrock (1944), Index Fossils of North America: A New Work Based on the Complete Revision and Reillustration of Grabau and Shimer’s 'North American Index Fossils,' MIT Press, Cambridge, MA; E), H), and I) © Christi Sobel
  • 3.40: A) Nobu Tamura [CC-BY-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons and Alana McGillis; B) Matthew, W. D. (1937), Paleocene faunas of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 30: 1–510, and Robert Bruce Horsfall; C) and D) Matthew, W. D. (1937), Paleocene faunas of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 30: 1–510, and © Christi Sobel; E) Scott, W. B. (1913), A History of Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere, The Macmillan Company, New York, NY
  • 3.41: Tidwell et al. (1981), Cretaceous and Tertiary floras of the San Juan Basin, in S. G. Lucas, J. K. Rigby, Jr., and B. S. Kues (eds.), Advances in San Juan Basin Paleontology, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 307–332, reproduced with permission
  • 3.42: A) National Park Service; B) and C) Stock, C. (1925), Cenozoic Gravigrade Edentates of Western North America, with Special Reference to the Pleistocene Megalonychinae and Mylodontidae of Rancho Le Brea, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington
  • 3.43: A), C), D), E), G), and H) Robison, R. A., L. E. Babcock, and V. G. Gunther (2015), Exceptional Cambrian Fossils from Utah: a Window into the Age of Trilobites, Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication 15-1, 97 pp; B) Parent Géry [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons; F) Micha L. Rieser [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 3.44: A), B), and D) Robison, R. A., L. E. Babcock, and V. G. Gunther (2015), Exceptional Cambrian Fossils from Utah: a Window into the Age of Trilobites, Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication 15-1, 97 pp; C) Virtual Fossil Museum [CC-BY-NC-4.0] via http://www.fossilmuseum.net and Matteo De Stefano/MUSE [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons; E) Robison, R. A., L. E. Babcock, and V. G. Gunther (2015), Exceptional Cambrian Fossils from Utah: a Window into the Age of Trilobites, Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication 15-1, 97 pp and © Christi Sobel
  • 3.45: A), C), G), H), and I) Hintze, L. F., and F. D. Davis (2003), Geology of Millard County, Utah, Utah Geological Survey Bulletin 133, 305 pp; B), D), and E) © Christi Sobel; F) Guensburg, T. E., and J. Sprinkle (2003), The oldest known crinoids (Early Ordovician, Utah) and a new crinoid plate homology system, Bulletins of American Paleontology, no. 364, 43 pp
  • 3.46: Hintze, L. F., and F. D. Davis (2003), Geology of Millard County, Utah, Utah Geological Survey Bulletin 133, 305 pp
  • 3.47: Stokes, W. L. (1986), Geology of Utah, Utah Museum of Natural History and Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey, 280+ pp
  • 3.48: A) and B) © Christi Sobel; C) Teichert, C. (1965), Devonian rocks and paleogeography of central Arizona, US Geological Survey Professional Paper 464, 225 pp; D) Stokes, W. L. (1986), Geology of Utah, Utah Museum of Natural History and Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey, 280+ pp
  • 3.49: A) through H) Stokes, W. L. (1986), Geology of Utah, Utah Museum of Natural History and Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey, 280+ pp; I) Teichert, C. (1965), Devonian rocks and paleogeography of central Arizona, US Geological Survey Professional Paper 464, 225 pp
  • 3.50: A), H), I), and M) Hintze, L. F., and F. D. Davis (2003), Geology of Millard County, Utah, Utah Geological Survey Bulletin 133, 305 pp; B) through G), K), and L) Stokes, W. L. (1986), Geology of Utah, Utah Museum of Natural History and Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey, 280+ pp; J) Scott, W. B. (1916), An introduction to Geology, MacMillan, New York, 816 pp
  • 3.51: A) © Christi Sobel; B) Mark A. Wilson
  • 3.52: A) © 2009 Birmingham Paleontological Society, All Rights Reserved, reproduced with permission; B) Ray Troll, reproduced with permission
  • 3.53: A), B), C), D), and F) Stokes, W. L. (1986), Geology of Utah, Utah Museum of Natural History and Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey, 280+ pp; E) Hintze, L. F., and F. D. Davis (2003), Geology of Millard County, Utah, Utah Geological Survey Bulletin 133, 305 pp
  • 3.54: "Medtrails" [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 3.55: A) through I) Stokes, W. L. (1986), Geology of Utah, Utah Museum of Natural History and Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey, 280+ pp; J) Hook, S. C., and W. A. Cobban (2013), Middle Turonian (Late Cretaceous) rudistids from the lower tongue of the Mancos Shale, Lincoln County, New Mexico, New Mexico Geology, 35(1): 13–19
  • 3.56: Stokes, W. L. (1986), Geology of Utah, Utah Museum of Natural History and Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey, 280+ pp
  • 3.57: A) Scott, W. B. (1913), A History of Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere, The Macmillan Company, New York, NY and © Christi Sobel; B) Scott, W. B. (1913), A History of Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere, The Macmillan Company, New York, NY; C) © Christi Sobel
  • 3.58: A) H. Zell [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons; B) Michelle Pemberton [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 3.59: © Christi Sobel
  • 3.60: A) Photo by Wade Greenberg-Brand, specimen PRI 50287 in the collection of the Paleontological Research Institution; B) Alana McGillis
  • 3.61: © Jan Vriesen, Denver Museum of Nature and Science
  • 3.62: Ian Miller, Denver Museum of Nature and Science, reproduced with permission
  • 3.63: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 3.64: A) Photo by Wade Greenberg-Brand, specimen K22294 in the collection of the Paleontological Research Institution; B) through H) Virtual Fossil Museum [CC-BY-NC-4.0] via http://www.fossilmuseum.net
  • 3.65: A), C), and D) © Christi Sobel; B) Scott, W. B. (1913), A History of Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere, The Macmillan Company, New York, NY
  • 3.66: A), B), and C) National Park Service; D) Chris Light [CC-BY-SA-4.0] via Wikimedia Commons; E) Photo by Wade Greenberg-Brand, specimen 42415 in the collection of the Paleontological Research Institution
  • 3.67: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 3.68: A) Pirsson, L.V. and C. Schuchert (1915), A Textbook of Geology, Part II - Historical Geology, John Wiley & Sons, New York; B) through G) Cooper, G. A. and R. E. Grant (1974), Permian Brachiopods of West Texas, Vols II and III, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology No. 15, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington
  • 3.69: "Valugi" [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 3.70: © Christi Sobel
  • Stromatolite Box: James St. John [CC-BY-2.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • Conodont Box: © Christi Sobel
  • Mammal Teeth Box: Scott, W. B. (1913), A History of Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere, Macmillan Company, New York
  • Crinoid Box: © Christi Sobel
  • Graptolite Box: © Christi Sobel
  • Brachiopod Box: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • Ammonoid Box: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by http://www.renmanart.com
  • Mammoths and Mastodons Box: © Christi Sobel

Chapter 4: Topography

  • 4.1: Wendy Van Norden
  • 4.2: Jim Houghton
  • 4.3: Robin Lacassin [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 4.4: Adapted from image by USGS
  • 4.5: Bryan Isacks
  • 4.6: Andrielle Swaby
  • 4.7: Rob Lee [CC-BY-ND-2.0] via Flickr
  • 4.8: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 4.9: "Palacemusic" [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 4.10: "Moondigger" [CC-BY-SA-2.5] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 4.11: USGS
  • 4.12: The Greater Southwestern Exploration Company [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 4.13: Pearson Scott Foresman
  • 4.14: "Chensiyuan" [CC-BY-SA-4.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 4.15-4.16: John Fowler [CC-BY-2.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 4.17: Tyler Finvold
  • 4.18: Paul L. Sealey [CC-BY-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 4.19: Shane Torgerson [CC-BY-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 4.20: Andrielle Swaby
  • 4.21: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 4.22: Karl Musser [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 4.23: USDA Forest Service
  • 4.24: Donna Sutton [CC-BY-ND-2.0] via Flickr
  • 4.25: Andrielle Swaby
  • 4.26: New Mexico Bureau of Land Management [CC-BY-NC-ND-2.0] via Flickr
  • 4.27: "iris" [CC-BY-ND-2.0] via Flickr
  • 4.28: Andrielle Swaby
  • 4.29: Eric Ward [CC-BY-SA-2.0] via Flickr
  • 4.30: Jacob W. Frank [CC-BY-ND-2.0] via Flickr
  • 4.31: Zach Dischner [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 4.32: Phil Armitage
  • 4.33: Andrielle Swaby
  • 4.34: Colin Jaskiewicz [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 4.35: R. D. Miller, USGS
  • 4.36: Dave Bunnell [CC-BY-SA-2.5] via Wikimedia Commons
  • Colorado River Box: “Shannon” [CC-BY-SA-4.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • Topographic Inversion Box: Jim Houghton
  • Karst Box: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adpated from image by USGS
  • Elevation Map: Andrielle Swaby

Chapter 5: Mineral Resources

  • 5.1: Andrielle Swaby, adapted from USGS 2010–2011 and 2012–2013 State Minerals Yearbook
  • 5.2: Andrielle Swaby, adapted from image by US Energy Information Administration
  • 5.3: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 5.4: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by Swinsto101 [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 5.5: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by the Salt Association
  • 5.6: Doc Searls [CC-BY-2.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 5.7: Dagny Gromer [CC-BY-NC-ND-2.0] via Flickr
  • 5.8: Andrielle Swaby, adapted from USGS 2010–2011 and 2012–2013 State Minerals Yearbook
  • 5.9: James St. John [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 5.10: Doc Searls [CC-BY-2.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 5.11: "Kbh3rd" [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 5.12: James St. John [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 5.13: John Phelan [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 5.14: Rob Lavinsky, iRocks.com [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 5.15: "Triceratops56" [CC-BY-ND-2.0] via Flickr
  • 5.16: Andrielle Swaby, adapted from USGS 2010–2011 and 2012–2013 State Minerals Yearbook
  • 5.17: Andrielle Swaby, adapted from image by Colorado Geologic Survey
  • 5.18: W. G. Dayton [CC-BY-ND-2.0] via Flickr
  • 5.19-5.21: James St. John [CC-BY-2.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 5.22: Andrielle Swaby, adapted from image by Colorado Geologic Survey
  • Elements Box: Jane Picconi
  • Hydrothermal Solutions Box: Jim Houghton

Chapter 6: Energy

  • 6.1: Jim Houghton
  • 6.2: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by US Energy Information Administration
  • 6.3: Andrielle Swaby, adapted from image by USGS
  • 6.4: Andrielle Swaby, adapted from image by Peter Nester
  • 6.5: Andrielle Swaby, adapted from image by US Energy Information Administration
  • 6.6: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 6.7: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by Britannica Online for Kids
  • 6.8: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 6.9: US Department of Energy
  • 6.10: Andrielle Swaby, adapted from image by US Energy Information Administration
  • 6.11: Paul R. Kucher [CC-BY-2.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 6.12: Andrielle Swaby, adapted from images by US Energy Information Administration and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • 6.13–6.14: US Department of Energy
  • 6.15: Adapted from image by National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • 6.16: US Department of Energy
  • 6.17: J. N. Stuart [CC-BY-NC-ND-2.0] via Flickr
  • 6.18: Bureau of Land Management
  • 6.19: Andy Pernick, Bureau of Reclamation
  • 6.20: WildEarth Guardians [CC-BY-NC-ND-2.0] via Flickr
  • 6.21: Jim Houghton
  • 6.22: "Plazak" [CC-BY-SA-4.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 6.23: Andrielle Swaby, adapted from image by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • Oil and Gas Box: Jim Houghton
  • Coal Box: Jim Houghton
  • Geothermal Box: Wade Greenberg-Brand

Chapter 7: Soils

  • 7.1–7.2: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from images by USDA NRCS
  • 7.3: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 7.4: USDA NRCS
  • 7.5–7.10: Andrielle Swaby, adapted from images by USDA
  • 7.11: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by Brady, Nyle (1984), The Nature and Properties of Soils (9th edition), Macmillan, New York, NY
  • 7.12: Matt Lavin [CC-BY-SA-2.0] via Flickr
  • 7.13: US Forest Service
  • 7.14: Jessica Reeder [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 7.15: Jimmy Thomas [CC-BY-SA-2.0] via Flickr
  • 7.16: "Cosmic Kitty" [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 7.17: Eric Ward [CC-BY-SA-2.0] via Flickr
  • 7.18: Brandon Fick [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 7.19: Kimon Berlin [CC-BY-SA-2.0] via Flickr
  • 7.20: Beatrice Murch [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr

Chapter 8: Climate

  • 8.1: Jim Houghton
  • 8.2: Robert Rohde [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 8.3: Adapted from Wikipedia
  • 8.4-8.5: Adapted from image by Ron Blakey, NAU Geology
  • 8.6: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by USGS
  • 8.7: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by William A. Cobban and Kevin C. McKinney, USGS
  • 8.8: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from images by Utah Geological Society and Utah Geological Survey
  • 8.9–8.10: Adapted from images by Scenarios for Climate Assessment and Adaptation
  • 8.11: Adapted from image by Alex Matus [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 8.12: NOAA
  • 8.13-8.15: National Climate Assessment
  • 8.16: US Bureau of Land Reclamation
  • Köppen Climate Box: Wade Greenberg-Brand

Chapter 9: Earth Hazards

  • 9.1: USGS
  • 9.2: Adapted from image by USGS
  • 9.3: R. L. Schuster, US Geological Survey
  • 9.4: Jon White, Colorado Geological Survey
  • 9.5: USGS
  • 9.6: Colorado Department of Transportation
  • 9.7: Utah Department of Natural Resources
  • 9.8: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 9.9: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by USGS
  • 9.10: Arizona Geological Survey
  • 9.11: US Fish and Wildlife Service
  • 9.12: Wade Greenberg-Brand
  • 9.13: USGS
  • 9.14-9.15: Utah Geological Survey
  • 9.16: Adapted from image by USGS
  • 9.17: Lee Ruk [CC-BY-SA-2.0] via Flickr
  • 9.18: Gretchen Baker, reproduced with permission
  • 9.19: Adapted from image by Tobin and Weary, USGS
  • 9.20: Louis J. Maher, Jr.
  • 9.21: USGS
  • 9.22: National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Carlsbad, New Mexico, reproduced with permission
  • 9.23: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by USGS
  • 9.24: EPA
  • 9.25: Wade Greenberg-Brand, adapted from image by EPA
  • 9.26: "Shannon" [CC-BY-SA-4.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 9.27: NOAA
  • 9.28: Utah National Guard, 2-222nd Field Artillery
  • 9.29: NASA
  • 9.30: Adapted from image by Alex Matus [CC-BY-SA-3.0] via Wikimedia Commons
  • 9.31: City of Roswell, New Mexico
  • 9.32: "Junebug172"
  • 9.33: NOAA
  • 9.34: Sgt. William Smith, Fort Carson [CC-BY-2.0] via Flickr
  • 9.35: USGS
  • 9.36: Union of Concerned Scientists

Chapter 10: Fieldwork

  • 10.1–10.2: Paleontological Research Institution
  • 10.3: Don Duggan-Haas

Appendix

  • A.1–A.3: Next Generation Science Standards